Understanding how immune-heterogeneity leverages cellular diversity to achieve the adaptivity and flexibility in immune-responses is a grand challenge, which plays essential roles in the precision immunotherapy, regenerative medicine, autoimmune diseases, and infectious diseases. Our research group focuses on the long-distance, non-contact cellular communications in modulating immunity via extracellular vesicles and exosome route, using innovative 3D bioprinting technology, nano/biomaterial technology, 3D microfluidic devices and sensing approaches.